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 US consumers have benefited from an increased volume and variety of fresh-fruit imports,particularly since the 1990s. The fruit and vegetable section in today’s grocery store often has dozens of different fresh fruits on display all year around,which come from all corners of the globe as additions to domestic fresh fruit.

 The rapid growth of fresh-fruit imports has affected many aspects of the US fresh-fruit market. For example,while oranges are the US’s leading domestically grown fruit,the volume of US orange imports has grown steadily since the 1990s,with occasional sudden increases when the US crop experienced freezing weather (see Figure 1).

 The US domestic market receives orange imports from various countries and regions. Among the major suppliers,Mexico is a longtime source. However,due to the strong US demand for fresh oranges throughout the year,the Southern Hemisphere countries have also become major suppliers,especially during the summer months when domestic navel oranges are not available. Australia was the first such country,starting in the early 1990s after it obtained permission from the US government to export its navel oranges there. Australia was followed by South Africa in the late 1990s,and most recently by Chile as well.

 In the US,two main types of oranges are produced domestically: "navel oranges" and "Valencia oranges." Navel orangesーvirtually without seeds,with flesh that separates easily and is firm rather than wateryーare the most popular oranges for eating fresh. The navel orange share of US production of fresh-market oranges was 76 percent during the years 2010-2012. In comparison,Valencia orangesーwith thin skins,containing occasional seeds,and with juicy and sweet fleshーaccounted for 24 percent during the same period. As the US’s top supplier of fresh-market oranges,California produced 87 percent of fresh-market navel oranges and more than 81 percent of fresh_ market Valencia oranges.

 The main harvest period for domestic fresh-market oranges is from November through May,a time when California’s navel oranges are in season. However,the amount of oranges produced and shipped domestically falls significantly from June through October. In earlier years,when fresh-orange imports still accounted for only a small portion of domestic use,Valencia oranges were a popular variety when navel oranges were out of season. As seen in Figure 2,however,navel orange imports from the Southern Hemisphere countries have come to dominate the US in the summer season.

 Because of seasonal production patterns,the majority of Mexico’s oranges arrive in the US market from December through June,when US supplies are relatively high. In contrast,the season for imports from the Southern Hemisphere countries is mainly from July through October,when US supplies are relatively low. This trend is similar to that seen with many other fruits as well.
(Sophia Wu Huang (2013) Imports Contribute to Year-Round Fresh Fruit Availabilityを参考に作成)

In Figure 1,which of the following do (A),(B),(C),and (D) refer to? [  ]
  • (1)

    • (A)Australia  (B)Chile  (C)Mexico  (D)South Africa

    • (A)Australia  (B)Mexico (C)South Africa (D)Chile

    • (A)South Africa (B)Chile  (C)Australia  (D)Mexico

    • (A)South Africa (B)Mexico (C)Australia  (D)Chile